LNNano - Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory

Friction Stir Welding – FSW

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Friction Stir Welding – FSW

The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) machine performs the joining of metallic materials in the solid state by friction heating and deformation generated by the contact of a tool in rotary movement with the material.

Friction stir welding and processing machine – Model RM1, Manufacturing Technology Inc.

Friction stir welding process

The process has several advantages, such as:

– Solid-state: the material does not reach the melting point during welding, avoiding defects due to solidification, minimizing distortion, and reducing or eliminating the precipitation of deleterious phases;

– Autogenous: the union does not use filler metal addition and the joint is consolidated only with the welded material itself;

– Environmental-friendly: no need for shield gas, low energy consumption, and no toxic fumes produced;

– Automated: less prone to human errors.

Friction stir welding is applicable to a number of materials: aluminum, magnesium, copper, carbon steel, stainless steel and nickel alloys. In addition, dissimilar joints can be produced, such as carbon steel-aluminum, copper-stainless steel, nickel alloy-steel, among others.

The machine available at LNNano has devices for welding flat plates and pipes.

Device for plate welding.

Device for circumferential pipe welding.

The equipment counts with a temperature measurement system through type K thermocouple, which enables to record tool temperature during welding. The technical characteristics of the machine are shown in the table below.

Technical characteristics of FSW machine.

X axis Route of  645 mm; Maximum speed of 3000 mm/min.
Y axis Route of  260 mm; Maximum speed 3000 mm/min.
Z axis Force, Position, or Power control; Maximum force of 80 kN.
Tools Head Maximum speed of 3000 rpm with non refrigerated tools and 800 rpm for refrigerated ones.