LNNano - Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory

X-Ray Diffractometer

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X-Ray Diffractometer

The PANanalytical X’Pert PRO Materials Research Diffractometer XL system is a flexible system for the study of x-ray diffraction with capacity to perform various types of experiments in different types of materials such as thin films, powders, nano-structured materials, semiconductor wafers or large dimensions bulk samples. Among the possible measurements is diffraction, reflectometry, texture, residual stresses, and micro diffraction.

The diffractometer is equipped with four x-ray tubes (chromium, cobalt, copper and molybdenum), three detectors (Proportional, X’Celerator and Scintillator), five incident optical beam (fixed notches support with automatic attenuator, Cobalt Hybrid monochromator, Cobalt mirrors, x-ray lenses and monocapilar) and two diffracted optical beam (fixed notches support and parallel plate support).

Proposals are submitted through the CNPEM User Portal. Only proponents with a PhD can submit proposals. For this, you must register at the User Portal and submit a Research Proposal through the Portal. After choosing the “PANalytical X-Ray Diffractometer” equipment under the Metals Characterization and Processing Lab, fill the form with your research data and submit your proposal.

Scheduling is done continuously after technical viability is evaluated, usually 2-5 workdays after submission. No previous experience with diffractometers is required, but theoretical knowledge of the technique is very important to correctly interpret the results.

Panalytical X’Pert PRO MRD XL Diffractometer, in LNNano room with controlled access through locked door.

User Information

Samples to be analyzed must follow the rules below:

– Maximum allowed dimensions: 100 mm x 100 mm (length x width) and 40 mm (height). Samples with larger length and width can be mounted in the machine, but analysis will be limited to a 100 mm x 100 mm area.
– Maximum allowed weight: 1 kg (including sample holder, which usually is 100 to 200 g).
– Surface finish: Grinding and polishing is desired, but if the surface layer is of particular interest or the material can suffer a phase transformation during these steps, analysis can be done in the material as received, although it is possible that the results suffer from loss of resolution and/or peak width increase.

The MRD XL has a vertical cradle and powders must be measured in vertical position, which usually requires the powder to be compressed in a pellet for measurements.


N. C. Verissimo, C. Brito, W. L.R. Santos, N. Cheung, J. E. Spinelli, A. Garcia, “Interconnection of Zn content, macrosegregation, dendritic growth, nature of intermetallics and hardness in directionally solidified Mg-Zn alloys”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 662 (2016), 1-10 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.11.117

R. N. Duarte, J. D. Faria, C. Brito, N. C. Verissimo, N. Cheung, A. Garcia, “Length scale of the dendritic microstructure affecting tensile properties of Al–(Ag)–(Cu) alloys”, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 30 (2016), 1550261 http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217979215502616

F. Bertelli, N. Cheung, I. L. Ferreira, A. Garcia, “Evaluation of thermophysical properties of Al–Sn–Si alloys based on computational thermodynamics and validation by numerical and experimental simulation of solidification”, Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 98 (July 2016), 9–20 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jct.2016.02.018